A transformer can be a static machine used for transforming power from a circuit to a different without changing frequency. This really is a standard definition of transformer. Since there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is a static device. Transformer operates on ac supply. Transformer works about the principle of mutual induction.
If we would like to are aware of the background of transformer we have return back long from the 1880s. Around fifty years before that in 1830 property of induction which is the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved leading to more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the large capacity of transformer manufacturers in the range of several KVA, MVA came into existence. Around 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. During the early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and in many cases higher KV class transformers were made in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is very much cost-effective. Theoretically, this low voltage level power might be transmitted for the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted brings about greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut in case the voltage degree of an electrical power is increased, the existing of the power is reduced which causes decline in ohmic or I2R losses within the system, reduction in cross sectional part of the conductor i.e. lowering of capital cost of the machine and it also raises the voltage regulating the machine. Because of these, low level power should be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is done by step-up transformer on the sending side in the power system network. Simply because this high voltage power might not be distributed to the consumers directly, this needs to be stepped down to the desired level in the receiving end through the help of step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays a vital role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are often used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is in excess of 2. It is actually cost-effective to utilize auto transformer in which the ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is less than 2. Again an individual unit three phase transformer is far more cost effective than the usual bank of three 500kv power transformer within a three phase system. But a single three phase transformer unit is challenging to transport and have to be removed from service entirely if one of several phase winding breaks down.
Kinds of Transformer
Transformers could be categorized differently, depending upon their purpose, use, construction etc. The sorts of transformer are listed below,
Step Up Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally useful for stepping down and up the voltage degree of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is usually found in three phase power system as it is cost effective than later. But when size matters, it is preferable try using a bank of three single phase transformer because it is simpler to transport than a single single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are usually found in transmission network for stepping down or up the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and has maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps on the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It offers good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs each day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are employed to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which may be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is usually used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is higher than 2. It can be cost-effective to utilize later where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is lower than 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are equipped for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers created for installing at indoor are furnace transformer cost.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer it provides two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular fit using a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are placed on the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It has a central limb and 2 outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are placed around the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is present.
Berry type transformer: The core appears like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used as housing this sort of transformer with transformer oil filled inside.