The appropriate use of diamond blades is critical to providing cost-effective solutions for the construction industry. The Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association, which happens to be focused on the advancement and professionalism of concrete cutting operators, offers operators the various tools and skills essential to understand and employ diamond blades for optimal performance. CSDA accomplishes this goal through providing introductory and advanced training programs for operators with hands-on learning flat sawing, wall sawing, core drilling, wire sawing and hand sawing. In addition they offer some safety and training videos and also a safety handbook in support of their effort to educate sawing and drilling operators. This information will discuss the application of diamond tools, primarily saw blades, and give tips for their inexpensive use.
Diamond is well recognized since the hardest substance seen to man. One would assume that an operator of cut to length machine could utilize the hardness characteristics of diamond to maximum advantage, i.e. the harder the more effective. In reality, this may not be always true. Whether or not the operator is cutting or drilling concrete, stone, masonry or asphalt, the diamonds must wear as a way to maximize the performance of the cutting tool. This article will examine the role diamond plays in cutting tools and the way an operator can make use of analytical techniques to maximize the usage of the diamond cutting tools thereby increasing productivity and maximizing the lifespan from the tool.
Diamond crystals can be synthetically grown in a multitude of qualities, shapes and sizes. Synthetic diamond has replaced natural diamond in almost all construction applications due to this capability to tailor-create the diamond for that specific application. Diamond is grown with smooth crystal faces inside a cubo-octahedral shape and also the color is usually from light yellow to medium yellow-green. Diamond is additionally grown to some specific toughness, which generally increases as the crystal size decreases. The actual size of the diamond crystals, commonly referred to as mesh size, determines the amount of diamond cutting points exposed on top of your saw blade. Generally, larger mesh size diamond is used for cutting softer materials while smaller mesh size diamond is commonly used for cutting harder materials. However, there are lots of interrelated factors to consider and they general guidelines might not always apply.
The number of crystals per volume, or diamond concentration, also affects the cutting performance from the diamond tool. Diamond concentration, typically called CON, can be a way of measuring the level of diamond found in a segment in relation to volume. A standard reference point is 100 CON, which equals 72 carats per cubic inch. Diamond concentration for construction tools is typically in the range of 15-50 CON. A 32 CON would mean that the tool has 23 carats per cubic inch, or about 4 carats per segment. Improving the diamond concentration through providing more cutting points can certainly make the bond act harder whilst increasing diamond tool life. Optimum performance can be achieved when the diamond tool manufacturer utilizes his or her experience and analytical capabilities to balance diamond concentration and other factors to accomplish optimum performance for your cutting operator.
Diamond Shape & Size
Diamond shapes may vary from tough blocky cubo-octahedral crystals (Figure 1) to more friable crystals with less well-defined geometry (Figure 2). Diamond crystals with blocky shapes and sharp edges are usually more appropriate for stone and construction applications. The blocky shape provides greater effectiveness against fracturing, and thus provides the maximum number of cutting points and minimum surface contact. This has a direct impact within a lower horsepower requirement of the EI core cutting machine and also to maximize the life for the tool. Lower grade diamond is less costly and generally has more irregularly shaped and angular crystals and is also more suitable for less severe applications.
Synthetic diamond can be grown in many different mesh sizes to fit the desired application. Mesh sizes are generally in all the different 20 to 50 Usa Mesh (840 to 297 microns) in construction applications. The size of the diamond crystals, as well as the concentration, determines the level of diamond that will be exposed over the cutting surface of the segments in the blade. The exposure, or height, of diamond protrusion (Figure 3) influences the depth of cut of each crystal, and subsequently, the possible material removal rate. Larger diamond crystals and greater diamond protrusion can lead to a potentially faster material removal rate when there is enough horsepower available. For the most part, when cutting softer materials, larger diamond crystals are employed, so when cutting harder materials, smaller crystals are being used.
The diamond mesh size in a cutting tool also directly concerns the number of crystals per carat as well as the free cutting ability to the diamond tool. The smaller the mesh size, the greater the diamond crystals, while larger mesh size means smaller diamond. A 30/40 Mesh blocky diamond has about 660 crystals per carat, while a 40/50 Mesh diamond may have 1,700 crystals per carat.
Specifying the right mesh dimension is the position of the diamond tool manufacturer. Producing the proper amount of cutting points can increase the lifetime of the tool and reduce the appliance power requirements. For example, a diamond tool manufacturer may choose to use a finer mesh size to increase the volume of cutting crystals on the low concentration tool which improves tool life and power requirements.
Diamond Impact Strength
All diamond is not really the same, and this is also true for the effectiveness of diamonds employed in construction applications. The power of a diamond to stand up to a direct impact load is usually known as diamond impact strength. Other diamond-related factors, like crystal shape, size, inclusions as well as the distribution of these crystal properties, be a factor within the impact strength at the same time.
Impact strength may be measured and it is known as Toughness Index (TI). Additionally, crystals can also be put through extremely high temperatures during manufacturing and often during the cutting process. Thermal Toughness Index (TTI) will be the way of measuring the ability of the diamond crystal to stand up to thermal cycling. Subjecting the diamond crystals to high temperature, permitting them to come back to room temperature, and after that measuring the change in toughness makes this measurement helpful to a diamond tool manufacturer.
The maker must pick the best diamond according to previous experience or input in the operator inside the field. This decision is situated, to some extent, on the tool’s design, bond properties, material to get cut and Straight core cutting machine. These factors must be balanced by selecting diamond grade and concentration which will give you the operator with optimum performance at a suitable cost.
In general, a greater impact strength is needed for additional demanding, harder-to-cut materials. However, always using higher impact strength diamond which is more pricey is not going to always benefit the operator. It might not improve, and might degrade tool performance.
A diamond saw blade is made up of a circular steel disk with segments containing the diamond that are attached to the outer perimeter from the blade (Figure 4). The diamonds are held in place through the segment, which is actually a specially formulated blend of metal bond powders and diamond, that have been pressed and heated within a sintering press with the manufacturer. The diamond and bond are tailor-made to the particular cutting application. The exposed diamonds on top from the segment carry out the cutting. A diamond blade cuts inside a manner comparable to how sand paper cuts wood. As the blade cuts, bond tails are formed dexqpky76 trail behind each diamond (Figure 5). This bond tail provides mechanical support for that diamond crystal. As the blade rotates with the material, the diamonds chip away with the material being cut (Figure 6).
The ideal lifetime of a diamond starts as a whole crystal that becomes exposed from the segment bond matrix. As being the blade actually starts to cut, a compact wear-flat develops and a bond tail develops behind the diamond. Eventually, small microfractures develop, but the diamond continues to be cutting well. Then your diamond starts to macrofracture, and in the end crushes (Figure 7). This is the last stage of your diamond before it experiences a popout, where the diamond quite literally pops from the bond. The blade consistently work as its cutting action is taken over with the next layer of diamonds which can be interspersed during the entire segment.
The metal bond matrix, which is often created from iron, cobalt, nickel, bronze or any other metals in different combinations, was created to wear away after many revolutions from the blade. Its wear rate is designed to ensure that it will wear for a price that may provide maximum retention in the diamond crystals and protrusion from your matrix in order to cut.
The diamond and bond come together and it is around the producer to supply the very best combination based upon input from the cutting contractor given specific cutting requirements. Critical factors for sides to address would be the bond system, material being cut and machine parameters. A combination of diamond and bond accomplishes several critical functions.